The question paper has 22 questions in all. All questions are compulsory.
Marks are indicated against each question.
Questions from serial number 1 to 12 are Very Short Answer Questions. Each question carries 1 mark.
Questions from serial numbers 13 to 18 are 3 marks questions. Answers of these questions should not exceed 80 words each.
Questions from serial numbers 19 to 22 are 5 marks questions. Answers of these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
SECTION – A VERY SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS
1.Why did big European powers meet in Berlin in 1885?
In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, merchants from the towns in Europe began moving to the countryside, supplying money to peasants and artisans, persuading them to produce for an international market.
2.What was the main aim of the Treaty of Vienna of 1815?
Their main aim was to oppose the monarchial form of government and fight for liberty and freedom.
3.Name the members of the secret society carbonari .
4.What is Agenda 21?
Agenda 21 was adopted at first International Earth Summit held in 1992 at Rio de Janerio Brazil.
The two principles are as follows:
To combat environmental damage, poverty, disease through global cooperation on common interests, mutual needs and shared responsibilities.
Every local government should draw its own local Agenda 21
- Which soil type is the result of intense leaching due to heavy rainfall?
6.In which states has mining caused severe land degradation?
Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Odisha.
7.How many languages are recognized by Constitution of India?
8.Name the country which follows ‘holding together’ style of federalism.
India, Spain and Belgium.
9.Which subjects are included in the State List?
Agriculture, forest, Marriage
10.Give any two examples of informal sector of credit.
The two examples of informal sector of credit are moneylenders and friends.
11.What is collateral?
It is an asset that the borrower owns and given to the lender as a guarantee that he will repay the loan. If the borrower is unable to repay the loan then the lender has the right to sell it and get the money back.
12.How does money eliminate the need for double coincidence of wants?
Money acts as an intermediate in the exchange process and thus eliminates the need for double coincidence of wants.
SECTION – B SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS
13.How did the local people in the areas conquered by Napoleon react to French rule? Explain.
The local people in the areas conquered by Napoleon had a mixed reaction to French rule.
The businessman and the small producers welcomed the economic reforms introduced by Napoleon.
Initially, the French armies were recognized as the messenger of liberty but later on it was realised that the administrative reforms cannot go hand in hand with the political reform.
The increased taxation and censorship were not liked by the people.
14.Explain any three beliefs of the conservatism that emerged after 1815.
The three beliefs of the conservatism that emerged after 1815 were:
They believed that the traditional institutions of the state and the society must be protected and preserved.
They held the belief that the changes brought by the Napoleon and the modernization would definitely strengthen the power of the state and make it much more effective.
They also believed that the modem army, efficient bureaucracy, dynamic economy and the abolition of the feudalism and serfdom would surely provide gain to the aristocratic monarchies of Europe.
15.Explain any three factors responsible for soil formation.
The parent rock is the first factor which provides the basic material for the formation of soil.
Climate breaks the parent rock into small pieces.
Vegetation: Plant and animal organisms help in the weathering of the rocks slowly but continuously
Various forces of nature such as change in temperature, actions of running water, wind and glaciers, activities of decomposers, etc., contribute to the formation of soil.
Chemical and organic changes take place in the soil.
16.Why has federalism succeeded in India? Which were the policies adopted by India that ensured this success? Explain.
Federalism has succeeded in India due to the nature of democratic policies in our country. The policies adopted by India for smooth functioning of a federal structure: Linguistic States: After independence, the boundaries of several old states were changed in order to create new states. The creation of linguistic states was the first and a major test for democratic politics in our country.
The second test for the Indian federation is the language policy, The Indian constitution did not give the status of national language to any one of the language.
Centre-State Relations: Restructuring the centre-state relations is one more way in which federalism has been strengthened in practice.
Decentralisation of Power:
Power in India has been decentralised to the local government. The local government includes Panchayats in villages and municipalities in urban areas.
17.Why is there a great need to expand formal sector of credit in India? Explain any three reasons.
Due to the following reasons it is necessary for the banks and the cooperative societies to increase their lending facilities in the rural areas:
There is limited availability of the formal sector credit sources in the rural areas.
The poor borrowers are bound to take loan from the moneylenders at high rate of interest.
Due to high rate of interest they are not able to repay the loan and caught in debt- trap
- Which government body supervises the functioning of formal sources of loans in India? Explain its functions.
RBI is the government body which supervises the functioning of formal sources of loans in India.
Functions of RBI:
RBI sees that the banks maintain the minimum cash balance or not.
RBI monitors that the loan is not just given to the profit-making businesses and traders but also to the small borrower.
RBI asks the banks to submit information like how much they are lending, to whom they are lending and at what rate of interest etc.
SECTION – C LONG ANSWER QUESTIONS
19.Napoleon had destroyed democracy in France, but in the administrative field he had incorporated revolutionary principles in order to make the whole system more rational and efficient. Analyse the statement with arguments.
The five social and administrative reforms introduced by Napoleon in the regions under his control were
He gave away with all privileges based on birth, established equality before the law.
He abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues.
Guild restrictions were removed in the towns.
He introduced uniform and standardised weights and measures.
He also introduced a common national currency that would facilitate the movement and exchange of goods and capital from one region to another.
20.Why is resource planning essential in India?
Resource planning is a procedure of proper utilisation of resources. Resource planning is important because :
Resources in India are not evenly distributed. Some parts of the county are rich in one resource but deficient in other important resources which are essential. For example, Rajasthan is rich in solar and wind energy but lacks water resource. Jharkhand is rich in minerals and coal deposits but lack in industrialisation. This is the reason why resource planning is essential. An effective resource planning will help in effective use of the resources available in the environment.
Secondly, most of the resources present in our environment are limited. Therefore, if these resources are not preserved or not used rationally we will be in great trouble. For example : Petrol is a limited resource and it cannot be renewed. Exhaustion of petrol will create huge chaos in the country as we are extensively dependent on the petrol.
Thirdly, resource planning is important because it minimises the wastage or over utilisation of resources. The very first step of resource planning is to make a list of resources available in the environment. This helps us to assess which resources should be used and how much it should be used to prevent over utilisation and minimise wastage.
21.What is meant by “decentralisation of powers”? Explain the importance of local self – government in the light of decentralization.
Decentralisation: When power is taken from ‘Central and State Governments and is given to the local government, it is called decentralisation. The Constitution was amended in 1992 to make the third tier of democracy more powerful and effective.
Provisions of the Constitutional Amendment of 1992 are:
Now it is mandatory to hold regular elections to local government bodies.
Seats are reserved in the elected bodies and the executive heads of these institutions for SCs, STs and OBCs.
At least one-third of all positions are reserved for women.
An independent institution called State Election Commission has been created in each state to conduct panchayat and municipal elections.
The state governments are required to share some powers and revenue with local government bodies.
- How do banks play an important role in the economy of India? Explain.
People take credit from different sources, which can be grouped into two- formal sector loans and informal sector loans. Formal sector credit sources includes banks and cooperatives.
They charge less rate of interest in comparison to that of informal sector. Thus the cost of borrowing is less. Due to low cost of borrowing, the borrowers have to repay less and they will have more saving, which will cause individual economic development and ultimately will lead to the country’s economic development. Therefore, it can be said that formal sources of credit provides us cheap and affordable credit, which is important for country’s development.
Thus it is important that banks and cooperatives should increase their lending especially in the rural areas so that people will be less dependent on the informal sector.